Optical instrumentation of Oulu
email@example.com - last update: 1 April 2010 (RR)
Despite new observation methods provided by radars and satellites, optical measurements are
still important when studying auroras.
The Space Physics Group of Oulu is regularly combining optical auroral (and other)
measurements with national EISCAT measurement campaigns by using TV cameras and photometers in the field.
The instruments are designed and build in house by Dr. Kari Kaila
and M. Sc. Jouni Jussila.
Currently used measurement sites can be seen in the picture below.
Optical auroral instrumentation of Space
Physics group of Oulu is mainly used is four sites, in Tromsö,
Norway and in Kilpisjärvi, Karesuvanto and Sodankylä in Finland.
Tromsö is used during EISCAT campaigns, photometer and camera are
located to Kilpisjärvi and Karesuvanto continuously, and third
photometer is located to Sodankylä.
Space physics group of University of Oulu is concentrated on study of small-scale and short temporal resolution auroral forms. For this reason group uses
cameras with narrow field-of-view, both three real-speed (old ATV-86
and two new ATV-98) and two snapshot (AP7) versions.
Auroral photometers designed and built in group are used to obtain
the absolute intensities of the studied auroral emissions. Three
scanning photometers are used in Northern Scandinavia both in campaign
and in continuous measurements. One photometer has also been constructed for the Chinese Zhong Shan station in Antarctic. This station is closely
conjugated (magnetically) with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar.
Some data and other information in here.
Publication by the Oulu group related to (group's own) optical measurements
- Kaila, K., R. Rasinkangas, P. Pollari, R. Kuula, J.
Kangas, T. Turunen and T. Bösinger, High resolution measurements of pulsating
aurora by EISCAT, optical instruments and pulsation magnetometers, Adv. Space Res.,
9, (5)53-(5)56, 1989.
- Kaila, K.U., and R. A. Rasinkangas, Coordinated photometer and incoherent
scatter radar measurement of pulsating arcs with high time resolution, Planet. Space
Sci., 37, 545-553, 1989.
- Rasinkangas, R., K. Kaila and T. Turunen, Comparison of the lower border
of aurorae determined by two optical emission ratio models, Planet. Space Sci., 37,
- Collis, P.N., I. Häggstöm, K. Kaila, and M.T. Rietveld, EISCAT radar
observations of enhanced incoherent scatter spectra; Their relation to red aurora and
field-aligned currents. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 1031-1034, 1991.
- Aikio, A.T., H.J. Opgenoorth, M.A.L. Persson, and K.U. Kaila, Ground-based
measurements of an arc-associated electric field, J. atmos. terr. Phys., 55,
No. 4/5, 797-808, 1993.
- Kaila, K.U., R. Rasinkangas, and J. Kangas, Photometric calibration
of auroral TV pictures during a pulsating patch event. Ann. Geophys., 11,
- Lanchester, B.S., J.R. Palmer, M.H. Rees, D. Lummerzheim, K. Kaila, and T.
Turunen, Energy flux and characteristic energy of an elemental auroral structure, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21, 2789-2792, 1994.
- Aikio, A. and K. Kaila, A substorm observed by EISCAT and other
ground-based instruments - evidence for near-Earth substorm initiation, J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys., 58, 5-21, 1996.
- Bösinger, T., K. Kaila, R. Rasinkangas, P. Pollari, J. Kangas, V. Trakhtengerts,
A. Demekhov, and T. Turunen, An EISCAT study of a pulsating auroral arc: simultaneous
ionospheric electron density, auroral luminosity and magnetic field pulsations, J.
Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 23-35, 1996.
- Lanchester, B. S., K. Kaila, and I. W. McCrea, Relationship between large
horizontal electric fields and auroral arc elements. J. Geophys. Res., 101,
- Nygrén, T., M. Markkanen, M. Lehtinen, and K. Kaila, Application of
stochastic inversion in auroral tomography, Ann. Geophys., 14, 1124-1133,
- Kaila, K.U., C. Chong, Z. Qunshan, H. Holma, R. Rasinkangas, and J.
Kangas: Auroral photometer measurements in Antarctic: The Zhong Shan station. Satellite-Ground
Based Coordination Sourcebook, edited by M. Lockwood, H.J. Opgenoorth, M.N. Wild, and
R. Stamper, 183-191, 1997.
- Pellinen-Wannberg, A., A. Westman, G. Wannberg, and K. Kaila, Meteor fluxes and
visual magnitudes from EISCAT radar event rates: a comparison with cross-section based
magnitude estimates and optical data. Ann. Geophys., 16, 1475-1485, 1998.
- Holma, H.J., K.U. Kaila, and J.R.T. Jussila,
Temperatures, emission heights and energies in discrete auroral
forms, Phys. Chem. Earth (B) 25, No. 5-6, 463-466, 2000.
- Kaila, K.U. and H.J. Holma, Absolute calibration of
photometer, Phys. Chem. Earth (B) 25, No. 5-6, 467-470, 2000.